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Iran: Overcoming a Rentier Economy

In Uncategorized on December 31, 2015 at 2:59 pm

By Antonio Graceffo
Shanghai Jiaotong University, China MBA
PhD Candidate, Shanghai University of Sport
Contact: Antonio_graceffo@hotmail.com
Prepared for the course: Constitutional Struggles in the Muslim World,
University of Copenhagen

About one third of Iran’s GDP is dependent on a single asset, oil, which has turned Iran into a classic example of a rentier economy (Graeber 2015). Rentier economies can be based on control of natural resources, property, financial assets, or intellectual property. (Standing 2014). Rentier states are capable of generating income without developing businesses. As a result, “When a country becomes a rentier state, it loses the incentive to diversify and expand other sectors of its economy, remaining stagnant in the raw materials sector.” (Sha’er 2015).

This paper will provide a detailed description of the problem the rentier economy poses Iran. Next, it will propose solutions, including sub-steps that make the solutions politically realistic. Then, it will identify potential opponents to the solutions, as well as potential allies. Finally, in the conclusion, this paper will stress that these solutions are both necessary and politically feasible.
Read the full paper on Aacdemia
https://www.academia.edu/s/1f338c2f09?source=link

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Martial Arts Odyssey: Muay Boran 1

In Uncategorized on November 21, 2015 at 7:46 am

Before there was sport Muay Thai there was ancient Muay Thai, Muay Boran. Modern sport Muay Thai contains about 20 movements. Muay Boran contains hundreds. In the 1920’s when Muay Thai was codified as a modern sport His Majesty the King called the great masters together to write a book of modern Muay Thai. All of the techniques in that book have been recorded for history. All of the techniques excluded from the book are considered Muay Boran. Unfortunately, Muay Boran has never been codified. So, different masters know different techniques. Fighting Muay Thai is a way of earning a living in Thailand, but there are no Muay Boran fights. Consequently, young people abandoned the study of the art. Most masters haven’t passed on their skills to a younger generation. And now, most of the masters are old, dead, or dying. As a result, Muay boran is an endangered art. The master featured in this video is Adjan Sok Chai from Surin, Thailand, the first teacher of film star Tony Jaa. He can be seen in many of Tony Jaa’s movies, wearing almost the same clothes he wears in the video, the clothes he wears every day.
Martial Arts Odyssey: Muay Boran 1

Martial Arts Odyssey Re-Release (Part 1)

In Uncategorized on November 15, 2015 at 4:22 pm

Back to the beginning, rereleasing all of the videos
By Antonio Graceffo

Martial Arts Odyssey, the video series which follows the Brooklyn Monk, Antonio Graceffo on his journey through martial arts across Asia has been running since 2007. The video series grew out of a series of magazine articles and books which began in 2001, when Antonio left New York to go to Taiwan, learn Kung Fu and Mandarin and then train at the Shaolin Temple in Mainland China.

Since the beginning there have been about 400 martial arts videos, featuring the Monk studying diverse martial arts, such as Kuntaw in the Philippines, Muay Chaiya in Thailand, Selambam in Penang, Vo Co Truen in Vietnam, Bokator in Cambodia, shuai jiao in China and many, many more.

In order to share all of these wonderful martial arts with a new generation of fans, Antonio is rereleasing the episodes, in the order in which they were originally released, at a rate of one per day.

MAO: Kuntaw in the Philippines was the first episode shot and the first episode released, in 2007. At that time, Antonio didn’t even own a video camera, so the video was shot and edited by a TV crew in the Philippines. This video features Grand Master Frank Aycocho.

Digging for the Truth: Angkor Wat, from the Philippines, Antonio flew to Siem Reap Cambodia, where he and his Bokator instructor Grand Master San Kim Saen collaborated with a New York based film crew to shoot this documentary about the traditional Cambodian martial art, Bokator.

Between 2007 and 2008 numerous episodes were shot with borrowed equipment, but Antonio lacked expertise and money for editing, so the tapes collected in a backpack until late 2008 when they were finally edited and released, but not in the order in which they were shot. The third episode to air was MAO: Training with the Shan State Army 1, which was shot in 2007.

This video was shot in Burma during the saffron revolution when foreigners were banned from entering Burma. It is thought to be the first video ever to feature the kung fu of the Shan ethnic group, called Lai Tai. MAO Laitai 1

Pra Kru Bah, the muay Thai monk is the abbot of the Golden Horse Monastary, Wat Achatong on the Thai Burma border. In 2003 he took Antonio in and became Antonio’s first Muay Thai teacher. He taught Antonio Muay Thai, Thai language, and Thai culture. It was in this monastery that Antonio first heard about the war in Burma and vowed to someday help the Shan people. Prah Kru Bah Story Part 1

Brooklyn Monk, Antonio Graceffo is a lecturer at Shanghai University. He is also a PhD candidate at Shanghai University of sport, writing his dissertation on comparative forms of Chinese wrestling, in Chinese, with expected graduation in June of 2016. He is expected to graduate his China MBA, from Shanghai Jiaotong University, in January, 2016. Antonio is the author of the books, “Warrior Odyssey”, “The Monk from Brooklyn,” and several others. He has published hundreds of articles in the fields of linguistics: second language acquisition, as well as martial arts. Antonio is the host of the web TV show, “Martial Arts Odyssey,” which traces his ongoing journey through Asia, learning martial arts in various countries.
The Monk from Brooklyn, the book which gave Antonio his name, and all of his other books, the book available at amazon.com. His book, Warrior Odyssey, chronicling Antonio Graceffo’s first six years in Asia, including stories about Khmer and Vietnamese martial arts as well as the war in Burma and the Shan State Army, is available at http://www.blackbeltmag.com/warrior_odyssey
See Antonio’s Destinations video series and find out about his column on http://www.blackbeltmag.com
Twitter
http://twitter.com/Brooklynmonk
facebook
Brooklyn Monk fan page
https://www.facebook.com/pages/Brooklyn-Monk/152520701445654?fref=ts
Brooklyn Monk on YOUTUBE
http://www.youtube.com/user/brooklynmonk1
Brooklyn Monk in Asia Podcast (anti-travel humor)
http://brooklynmonk.podomatic.com

War Crimes, Genocide, and Terrorism, Defining Terror

In Uncategorized on November 15, 2015 at 3:54 pm

By Antonio Graceffo

In the aftermath of the November, 2015 terrorist attacks on Paris, the internet was ablaze with arguments and opinions, many of which were understandably emotionally charged. Many of the posts and arguments were using the words war crimes, genocide, and terrorism. Most people would agree that murder, whether defined as war Crimes, Genocide, and Terrorism, is a terrible thing. These words are not interchangeable, however, and to bring suit before the International Criminal Court or to bring a case to a world body, such as the United Nations, the specific crime would have to be named, defined, and proved. An atrocity can be committed which is seen as a pure act of evil and yet would not qualify as genocide, but a conviction might have been possible if the charge were war crimes or terrorism.

The purpose of this paper is to give an explanation for and some examples of the three terms; war crimes, genocide, and Terrorism.

War Crimes

Several definitions of war crimes can be found. According to The International Criminal Court: “War crimes” include grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions and other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in international armed conflict and in conflicts “not of an international character” listed in the Rome Statute, when they are committed as part of a plan or policy or on a large scale” (Icc-cpi.int 2015).

“Genocide, crimes against humanity, mistreatment of civilians or combatants during war can all fall under the category of war crimes. Genocide is the most severe of these crimes” (Kafala 2009). War crimes include: Murder, Extermination, Enslavement, Deportation, Imprisonment, Torture, Rape, Persecutions on political, racial and religious grounds (Kafala 2009). “War crimes may be committed by a country’s regular armed forces, such as its army, navy, or air force, or by irregular armed forces, such as guerrillas and insurgents.” (TheFreeDictionary.com).

The Legal Information Institute of Cornell University cites 18 U.S. Code § 2441 – War crimes, “which constitutes a grave breach of common Article 3…committed in the context of and in association with an armed conflict not of an international character…contrary to the provisions of the Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices as amended at Geneva on 3 May 1996 (Protocol II as amended on 3 May 1996), when the United States is a party to such Protocol, willfully kills or causes serious injury to civilians” (LII / Legal Information Institute 2015).

“serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in international armed conflict” (ICC cited in Icrc.org 2015). “…subjecting a protected person to medical experiments” (Icrc.org 2015).

“The conduct breaches important values.. example, abusing dead bodies;[8] subjecting persons to humiliating treatment;[9] making persons undertake work that directly helps the military operations of the enemy;[10] violation of the right to fair trial;[11] and recruiting children under 15 years of age into the armed forces.” (Icrc.org 2015).

While the exact wording may differ, the commonalities between the various definitions of war crimes is that they must be committed during a war, generally by uniformed military personnel. War crimes are often assessed when civilians are specifically attacked or targeted by an army at war. Genocide is included in war crimes, and is considered the most extreme war crime. Genocide will be further defined in the next section.

Examples of war crimes would be the Nazis in World War II intentionally targeting Jewish civilians (Kafala 2009).

Genocide

Genocide is considered one of the most severe crimes against humanity. It means “the deliberate attempt to destroy a national, ethnic, racial or religious group.” (Bbc.co.uk 2015).
According to the International Criminal Court (2015) Genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, as such: “killing members of the group, causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group, deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part, imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group, forcibly transferring children of the group to another group…Individuals are chosen as victims purely, simply and exclusively because they are members of the target group, and not because of anything an individual has done.”
Twentieth Century examples of genocide: Ottoman Turks slaughter of 1.5 million Armenians 1915-1923, Hitler’s holocaust against the Jews, Roma, and others 1930s and 40s, 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus killed in Rwanda 1994, and Former Yugoslavia 1992-1995. (Icc-cpi.int 2015b)

Terrorism

Experts will agree that there is no unified definition of terrorism (Schaack 2009). Schaack (2009) describes terrorism as ‘The perpetration of violence by enumerated or unenumerated means; The targeting of innocent civilians or elements of the civilian infrastructure; Conduct is undertaken: With the intent to cause violence or with wanton disregard for the act’s consequences; For the purpose of causing fear or terror, coercing a government, or intimidating an enemy; or To achieve some political, military, ideological, or religious goal” (Schaack 2009).

Cohen (2012) defines terrorism as: “acts offenses involving use of firearms, weapons, explosives, and dangerous substances when used as a means to perpetrate indiscriminate violence involving death or serious bodily injury to persons or groups of persons or populations or serious damage to property” (Cohen 2012).

According to International Crimes Database (n.d.) “In its Resolution 1566 (2004), the Security Council drew on the international conventions and protocols relating to terrorism, and on this basis, referred to terrorism as: criminal acts, including against civilians, committed with the intent to cause death or serious bodily injury, or taking of hostages, with the purpose to provoke a state of terror in the general public or in a group of persons or particular persons, intimidate a population or compel a government or an international organization to do or to abstain from doing any act.” (Internationalcrimesdatabase.org n.d.)

“In order to intimidate a population or compel a government or an international organization to do or to abstain from doing any act.” (Internationalcrimesdatabase.org n.d.)

“Perhaps the most debated definition of terrorism, as an international crime, has been brought forward in the landmark decision of the Appeals Chamber of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon (STL). In paragraph 85 of that decision, the Appeals Chamber considers that: the international crime of terrorism … requires the following three key elements: (i) the perpetration of a criminal act (such as murder, kidnapping, hostage-taking, arson, and so on), or threatening such an act; (ii) the intent to spread fear among the population (which would generally entail the creation of public danger) or directly or indirectly coerce a national or international authority to take some action, or to refrain from taking it; (iii) when the act involves a transnational element.” (Internationalcrimesdatabase.org n.d.)

Examples of terrorism

The September, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City which killed 2993, the 2001 “shoe bomber” who attempted to blow up an American Airlines flight (Internationalcrimesdatabase.org n.d.) the 2009 Boko Haram attack in Maiduguri, Borno, Nigeria which killed 780, the 2004 attaack in Beslan, North Ossetia, Russia resulting in 372 killed (Johnstonsarchive.net 2015) The 2015 Paris attack on the offices of Charlie Hebdo magazine, which killed twelve (WSJ 2015), The November 2015 terrorist attacks in Paris which left more than 128 people dead (Almasy, Meilhan and Bittermann 2015).

Taking the Paris bombings or the 9/11 terrorist attacks in New York City, one can apply the definition of terrorism. Both attack were violent in nature, directly targeted at civilians or civilian infrastructure, and were undertaken for the intent of spreading fear among the population and to indirectly coerce a national or international authority to take some action, or to refrain from taking it.

Conclusion

Horrible things can and do happen in this world, but that doesn’t make them a war crime, neither does it make them genocide, or terrorism. A million people could be killed in a single day, and yet it may not qualify as a war crime if the persons killed were combatants in a declared war, killed in a way that does not violate the rules of war. A million civilians could be killed in a single day, and yet it couldn’t be called genocide unless the intent was to exterminate an entire race from the planet. A million civilians could be killed in a single day, but the crime wouldn’t necessarily qualify as terrorism if the perpetrators were uniformed soldiers, acting on direct orders from the country’s government, within its own borders. This is not to detract from the tragedy of a million people being killed in a single day, it just means that in order to bring suit, or to bring the case before a world body, the crime needs to be identified correctly.

Bibliography
Almasy, Steve, Pierre Meilhan, and Jim Bittermann. ‘Paris Massacre: At Least 128 Die In Attacks – CNN.Com’. CNN. N.p., 2015. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.
Bbc.co.uk,. ‘BBC – Ethics – War: War Crimes’. N.p., 2015. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.
Cohen, Aviv. ‘PROSECUTING TERRORISTS AT THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT: REEVALUATING AN UNUSED LEGAL TOOL TO COMBAT TERRORISM’. Michigan State International Law Review Vol. 20:2 (2012): 223. Print.
Icc-cpi.int,. ‘ICC – What Are War Crimes?’. N.p., 2015. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.
Icc-cpi.int,. ‘ICC – What Is Genocide?’. N.p., 2015. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.
Icrc.org,. ‘Customary IHL – Rule 156. Definition Of War Crimes’. N.p., 2015. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.
Internationalcrimesdatabase.org,. ‘ICD – Terrorism – Asser Institute’. N.p., 2015. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.
Johnstonsarchive.net,. ‘Worst Terrorist Strikes–Worldwide’. N.p., 2015. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.
Kafala, Tarik. ‘BBC NEWS | Europe | What Is A War Crime?’. News.bbc.co.uk. N.p., 2009. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.
LII / Legal Information Institute,. ’18 U.S. Code § 2441 – War Crimes’. N.p., 1949. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.
Schaack, Beth. ‘Intlawgrrls: Toward A Definition Of Terrorism’. Intlawgrrls.com. N.p., 2009. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.
TheFreeDictionary.com,. ‘War Crimes’. N.p., 2015. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.
Copy and paste bibliography citation Copy and paste in-text citation
WSJ,. ‘Timeline Of Terror Attacks In Past 20 Years’. N.p., 2015. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.

Brooklyn Monk, Antonio Graceffo is a lecturer at Shanghai University. He is also a PhD candidate at Shanghai University of sport, writing his dissertation on comparative forms of Chinese wrestling, in Chinese, with expected graduation in June of 2016. He is expected to graduate his China MBA, from Shanghai Jiaotong University, in January, 2016. Antonio is the author of the books, “Warrior Odyssey”, “The Monk from Brooklyn,” and several others. He has published hundreds of articles in the fields of linguistics: second language acquisition, as well as martial arts. Antonio is the host of the web TV show, “Martial Arts Odyssey,” which traces his ongoing journey through Asia, learning martial arts in various countries.
The Monk from Brooklyn, the book which gave Antonio his name, and all of his other books, the book available at amazon.com. His book, Warrior Odyssey, chronicling Antonio Graceffo’s first six years in Asia, including stories about Khmer and Vietnamese martial arts as well as the war in Burma and the Shan State Army, is available at http://www.blackbeltmag.com/warrior_odyssey
See Antonio’s Destinations video series and find out about his column on http://www.blackbeltmag.com
Twitter
http://twitter.com/Brooklynmonk
facebook
Brooklyn Monk fan page
https://www.facebook.com/pages/Brooklyn-Monk/152520701445654?fref=ts
Brooklyn Monk on YOUTUBE
http://www.youtube.com/user/brooklynmonk1
Brooklyn Monk in Asia Podcast (anti-travel humor)
http://brooklynmonk.podomatic.com

Make up Your Own Linguistic Rules

In Uncategorized on October 18, 2015 at 11:26 am

By Antonio Graceffo

I love when people make up their own little linguistic rules, not based on any sort of research or significant experience, such as: a detractor on the internet claimed that native speakers of Spanish learned Vietnamese faster than English natives “because of the similarities in the languages.” The ONLY similarity that he was referring to was putting adjectives after nouns. Apart from that, a Spanish speaker would have no advantages at all. And at this point in the world’s history, the bulk of loan words in almost any language are from English. So, English would be better than Spanish as a basis for any non-Latinate language. Another point is that when you start talking about Asian languages there isn’t a lot of data on non-native English speakers as learners. For Vietnamese, there is undoubtedly data on French speakers, but beyond the US and France, which western countries has Vietnam had a lot of involvement with? Apart from US soldiers of Latin extraction how many Spanish speakers have ever studied Vietnamese?
Another one I have heard repeatedly is that Koreans learn Chinese faster because of similarities in vocabulary and because of the Korean government’s Chinese character exam, which a significant percentage of young people have passed. In practice, I have found that Koreans and Vietnamese are the absolute least fluent students at the Sports University. Even students preparing for their graduation speak Chinese at an incredibly basic level. Much of the reason why Koreans fail to learn Chinese, but many Africans succeed, is probably cultural, rather than linguistic. But that is a central theme in my linguistics writing. I believe that with very few language combinations, the bulk of the difficulties or advantages people have in learning a foreign language are cultural, rather than linguistic. Another anecdotal proof would be that 60% of the vocabulary of the Vietnamese language could be traced to China. And yet, Vietnamese are among the worst Chinese learners at the university.
Today sitting in my hotel room, in Phnom Penh, hearing the Indians across the hall talking way too loudly, with their door open, I could catch about every tenth word, because of the shared origin of some of the Khmer, Thai, Bahasa, and Filipino vocabulary. And yet, these guys couldn’t speak Khmer. And when they tried to communicate with the hotel staff, they did so in absolutely atrocious English, rather than broken Khmer. My point, once again, is that people put too much emphasis on words, when it comes to language learning. Since Indians would already have 10-20% of the Khmer vocabulary, you would think they would find it easier to learn the language. And yet, that doesn’t seem to be the case. Language learning is much more about culture than linguistics.

Brooklyn Monk, Antonio Graceffo is a lecturer at Shanghai University. He is also a PhD candidate at Shanghai University of sport, writing his dissertation on comparative forms of Chinese wrestling. He is expected to graduate his China MBA, from Shanghai Jiaotong University, and his PhD in Spring, 2016. Antonio is also a martial arts and adventure author living in Asia, the author of the books, “Warrior Odyssey’ and “The Monk from Brooklyn.” He is also the host of the web TV show, “Martial Arts Odyssey,” which traces his ongoing journey through Asia, learning martial arts in various countries.
The Monk from Brooklyn, the book which gave Antonio his name, and all of his other books, the book available at amazon.com. His book, Warrior Odyssey, chronicling Antonio Graceffo’s first six years in Asia, including stories about Khmer and Vietnamese martial arts as well as the war in Burma and the Shan State Army, is available at http://www.blackbeltmag.com/warrior_odyssey
See Antonio’s Destinations video series and find out about his column on http://www.blackbeltmag.com
Twitter
http://twitter.com/Brooklynmonk
facebook
Brooklyn Monk fan page
https://www.facebook.com/pages/Brooklyn-Monk/152520701445654?fref=ts
Brooklyn Monk on YOUTUBE
http://www.youtube.com/user/brooklynmonk1
Brooklyn Monk in Asia Podcast (anti-travel humor)
http://brooklynmonk.podomatic.com

The Never Ending Bokator Argument

In Uncategorized on September 5, 2015 at 9:43 am

DSC08267

By Antonio Graceffo

A friend sent me a Phnom Penh Post story about yutakhun khom the traditional Khmer martial art of Master Chan Boeunthoeun. In the article, Chan Boeunthoeun claims that his martial art is older and more authentic than the Bokator of Grand Master San Kim Saen. Chan Boeunthoeun has apparently gone so far as to solicit UNESCO to remove Bokator from the Intangible Cultural Heritage, martial arts list, in favor of his yuthakhun Khom. The whole argument is preposterous on so many levels. But before I explain how baseless this argument is, let me first say one thing. I have huge respect for Chan Boeunthoeun who taught his son Chan Rothana to combine traditional Khmer martial arts with bradal serey kick boxing, which Chan Rothana then used, successfully, in over 90 professional bradal serey kick boxing fights. Chan Rothana even used a combination of traditional Khmer techniques, plus bradal serey and some modern MMA to become a One FC fighter and to amass a professional MMA record of 3 wins and 1 loss.

SONY DSC

SONY DSC

There should be no question about Chan Rothana’s courage, or the fighting effectiveness of his martial. He definitely walks the walk. And I respect that. But there is no evidence of any kind to prove that yutakhun khom is older than Bokator or that the word yutakhun khom even existed prior to 2012.

Leading up to 2004, Chan Boeunthoeun used to be friends with Bokator Grand Master, San Kim Saen. They had both been part of the Hopkido federation and worked together to found the original Bokator Federation in 2004. They then had a falling out, and Chan Boeunthoeun left (or was asked to leave) the Bokator federation. Chan Boeunthoeun continued to teach Bokator out of his home until about 2012, when he suddenly decided that he was one of the two last remaining masters of yutakhun khom, which he claimed was the real Khmer traditional martial art.

In 2012, The National Olympic Committee of Cambodia, working together with Grand Master San Kim Saen, managed to get Bokator recognized by UNESCO on the Intangible Cultural Heritage, martial arts list. Before 2012, Cambodia had NOTHING on the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage, martial arts list. Thailand had Muay Thai. Japan had Judo. Korea had Taekkyeon, but Cambodia had no official martial art until 2012, when the Bokator of Grand Master San Kim Saen was recognized. Since then, a number of other Cambodians have suddenly come forward, claiming to be teaching even older styles of Cambodian martial arts. In 2004, most of those masters, including Chan Boeunthoeun, were at the national meeting in Phnom Penh when the Bokator association was founded. Many of them were founding members of Bokator. So, if they actually knew of some other, older, better martial art, why did they wait until 2012 to talk about it?

throat

A Google search for “yutakhun khom” revealed the earliest online mention of the art was a post in a Sherdog.com forum in 2012.

The Phnom Penh Post story had this quote from Benoit Rigallaud, the manager of Chan Rothana and owner of the studio where yutakhun khom is taught, “’UNESCO giving bokator Intangible Heritage Asset status was a concern to the yutakhun khom community, and should be to all Cambodians, because ‘they failed to conduct a full investigation”’” Full investigation! Of what? The only evidence yutakhun khom has is the legend of a magical book of the ancient martial arts techniques which was allegedly hidden for Centuries and then finally destroyed by the Khmer Rouge.

Is it possible that someone who has a financial interest in yutakhun khom being recognized has a slightly biased opinion? And, when did opinion become fact? There doesn’t seem to be a shred of evidence to support the claims of yutakhun khom having existed. In fact the word does not appear in the 1936 dictionary of the Khmer language. Neither are there any ancient writings using that word, apart from the magical book which was destroyed by the Khmer Rouge.

Another quote from Benoit Rigallaud, “This is crazy, because we are talking about history and culture here, and if heritage is lost then it is gone forever.” If Benoit Rigallaud and Chan Boeunthoeun succeed in getting Bokator removed from the UNESCO list, then Cambodia will be losing its cultural heritage. And I agree, that is crazy.

As for the “history” of Bokator, I interviewed Chan Boeunthoeun, the first time, in 2007 in connection with the TV show, Human Weapon. At that time, Chan Boeunthoeun still called his style Bokator. He mentioned the book which had been destroyed as proof of the art. While telling me the history of Bokator, he told me that King Jayavarman VII, the patron of Bokator, and now apparently of yutakhun khom, and Bodhidharma (Da Mo) the founder of Shaolin Kung Fu, were “classmates.” According to Chan Boeunthoeun, Bodhidharma was Khmer, not Indian. Next, he said that King Jayavarman VII taught Bokator to Bodhidharma and Bodhidharma brought Bokator to China and called it Kung Fu. This story astounded me, given that Bodhidharma lived during the 5th and 6th Centuries and King Jayavarman VII lived during the 12th and 13th. When I asked him why history had recorded the story differently, he blamed Thailand. Those damned Thais and their political influence! They got the entire world to change the history of both India and China, just to repress the Khmer martial art of yutakhun khom.

Chan Boeunthoeun’s story, since 2012, has been that he has been teaching yutakhun khom all along and that it was yutakhun khom that King Jayavarman VII supported and that it was yutakhun khom that was in the ancient book which was destroyed.

According to the Phnom Penh Post story, “Boeunthoeun claims yutakhun khom dates back 2,000 years to the Funan kingdom of Southeast Asia, but it was King Jayavarman VII at the height of the Khmer Angkorian empire nearly 1,000 years ago who could be credited with cementing the yuthakun khom philosophy that survives to this day.”” This is the exact same story that has been told about Bokator. And, there is no evidence of either the word Bokator or yuthakun khom in any historical document in Cambodia. During the nearly ten years that I researched my book on Khmer martial arts, I also searched French documents. I searched in Thailand, Lao, and Burma. I spoke to Khmer martial arts teachers and students in USA, Australia, Canada, and Europe. And NO ONE had a book. No one had any evidence of any kind. And during those first many years, pre 2012, I never heard the word yuthakun khom. In fairness, I did here the word yuthakun used for martial art. And there was a yuthakun martial arts club that trained at the techno university in Phnom Penh. But their martial art was admittedly synthetic. They never claimed it to be original Khmer. It was basically a mix of everything from Khmer to karate, to taekwondo and even kung fu and probably judo.

But not one person I interviewed, including Chan Boeunthoeun used the term yuthakun khom.

Given the complete lack of evidence, it would seem more constructive for Khmer people to be happy that they made it to the UNESCO list at all. They should support the traditional martial art, whether it is called Bokator or yuthakun khom, and simply move on. There are so many other problems in the country which need to be addressed before tearing down work that has already been done and replacing it.

Brooklyn Monk, Antonio Graceffo holds a black krama in Khmer martial arts. He is the author of the book, Khun Khmer: Cambodian Martial Arts Journey. He works as a lecturer at Shanghai University. He is also a PhD candidate at Shanghai University of sport, writing his dissertation on comparative forms of Chinese wrestling. He is expected to graduate his China MBA, from Shanghai Jiaotong University, and his PhD in Spring, 2016. Antonio is also a martial arts and adventure author living in Asia, the author of the books, “Warrior Odyssey’ and “The Monk from Brooklyn.” He is also the host of the web TV show, “Martial Arts Odyssey,” which traces his ongoing journey through Asia, learning martial arts in various countries.

The Monk from Brooklyn, the book which gave Antonio his name, and all of his other books, the book available at amazon.com. His book, Warrior Odyssey, chronicling Antonio Graceffo’s first six years in Asia, including stories about Khmer and Vietnamese martial arts as well as the war in Burma and the Shan State Army, is available at http://www.blackbeltmag.com/warrior_odyssey

See Antonio’s Destinations video series and find out about his column on http://www.blackbeltmag.com
Twitter
http://twitter.com/Brooklynmonk
facebook
Brooklyn Monk fan page
https://www.facebook.com/pages/Brooklyn-Monk/152520701445654?fref=ts
Brooklyn Monk on YOUTUBE
http://www.youtube.com/user/brooklynmonk1
Brooklyn Monk in Asia Podcast (anti-travel humor)
http://brooklynmonk.podomatic.com

Evaluating Conspiracy Media for Reliability

In Uncategorized on August 30, 2015 at 1:41 pm

By Antonio Graceffo

Since the beginning of the Barack Obama administration, the President and his government have been accused by the conspiracy blogosphere of committing crimes including: faking his birth certificate, creating Obamacare “death panels”, blowing up the Deepwater Horizon offshore drilling rig, commanding or fabricating Syrian gas attacks, and ordering the shooting of a TSA agent, as well as the Sandy Hook school massacre. Further, according to the blogosphere, anyone who opposes these draconian policies will be shipped off to FEMA death camps. (Shermer) Conspiracy theorists have even blamed the US government for the Boston Marathon bombing. (Koerth-Baker)

Conspiracy theories have always existed in America, but they have gained popularity since 9/11. (Uscinski) An article published in Business Insider, explains that belief in conspiracy theories is so prevalent today that, 37% of Americans believe that the Food and Drug Administration, because of pressure from drug companies, is preventing Americans from having access to natural cures for major diseases such as cancer. (FRIEDMAN)

More than a decade after the start of the war on terror, people find themselves in an age of bank collapses, mortgage crisis, high unemployment, terrorism, and a diminishing middle class. Faced with so many real problems, it becomes easy for the average citizen to abandon hope, lose his faith in world governments, and to allow his very justified fears to snowball into paranoia. “Conspiracy theories often crop up during times of uncertainty and fear: after terrorist strikes, financial crises, high-profile deaths and natural disasters.” (Oaklander)

Examples of conspiracy headlines that have appeared on the internet include:

‘The NYPD Declares Martial Law In Brooklyn” (published in Before it’s News, in 2013)
‘Did You Know: US Gov’t Found Guilty In Conspiracy To Assassinate Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’. published in News One.
‘Special Ops Officer Blows Whistle On CIA Funded ISIS Through Swiss Bank Accounts” (published in The Common Sense Show’, 2015)
“Corporate Media Covers Staged ISIS Beheading Video” Published in Infowars, 2014.
‘TIME Admits ISIS Bringing Arms, Fighters In From NATO Territory” published in New Eastern Outlook’. Journal-neo.org, 2015
“Fake News!! CNN & BBC Busted!! ISIS Is A Fake Threat!!” linked to RT English,. ‘Media ‘Staged’ Syria Chem Attack (E36)’. N.p., 2014. Web. 29 Aug. 2015.
“US Corporate government goes bankrupt on April 17th, refuses to acknowledge” published in Towards Emancipation, 2015
“5 Of 10 Top Economies In The World Drop The Dollar’. Activist Post, 2013.

Any of these stories, if true, would certainly be cause for legitimate alarm. But with so much media out there, and so many sources, saying so many things, how does one know who or what to believe?

Luckily, text evaluation is one of those areas where skills learned in academia carry over to the real world. When students pursue a research based degree, such as a PhD, one of the first tasks they must complete is a literature review. The literature review is a way of collecting and evaluating dissertations, articles and books relevant to their research. (Mathieson) After collecting these texts, students then evaluate them for relevance and reliability.

According to The Basic Academic Business Communication textbook, published by University of Technology Sydney, reliability can be assessed based on the following parameters: Audience, language, author, evidence, currency, and relation to findings in other media (University of Technology Sydney)

Audience

To evaluate the audience of a text, one can see which type of publication the text appears in. For example, articles which appear in scholarly journals, intended for academics, as opposed to popular magazines, intended for the general public, will employ a greater degree of complexity while communicating ideas. (Guides.library.cornell.edu) Peer reviewed journals are excellent sources, as the texts have been read and evaluated by a panel of experts before being published. According to an article in the International Journal of Architectural Computing, libraries spend more than 50% of their budgets on peer review journals. The reason, the article goes on to say, is because peer reviewed journals, targeted at academics and experts, serve as a forum for the exchange of ideas and to further the body of knowledge. Peer review also insures the quality of research. (Yi-Luen Do)

The strength of mainstream media

The language and depth of a technical or professional journal, as opposed to a magazine or newspaper of general circulation is quite different. Because general texts are written for the public at large, they may oversimplify complex issues. This does not, however, mean that articles appearing in mainstream media are not reliable. It has been purported that the very competitive market for general news in The United States has historically promoted truthful reporting. (Gentzkow and Shapiro)

In fact, the strength of The New York Times, CNN, BBC, or The Wall Street Journal is their integrity. A single botched story could do irreparable damage to the credibility of a media source. “Fictional accounts sensationalized, presented as truth and ‘breaking news’ in modern times have destroyed careers, lives and people.” (Czarny)
Therefore, the editors go to great lengths to insure that their content is free of erroneous or misleading information.

Mainstream media generally subscribe to a particular code of ethics. In fact, well-respected and larger media, such as Associated Press and Reuters, publish handbooks for journalists which include a section on ethics.

One example of a code of ethics would be The Code of Ethics of the Society of Professional Journalists, which requires journalists to:

“SEEKTRUTH AND REPORT IT…Test the accuracy of information from all sources…diligently seek out subjects of news stories to give them the opportunity to respond to allegations of wrong doing…Identify sources whenever feasible… Distinguish between advocacy and news reporting…Analysis and commentary should be labeled and not misrepresent fact or context.” (Society of Professional Journalists)

Publications which cater to conspiracy theorists tend to have lower reliability, as there does not appear to be a unified code of ethics for conspiracy websites.

This quote from an article published by the Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism, Oxford University was referring to Twitter, but it could just as easily apply to any online media which is not bound by a well-establish code of ethics. “Detractors point to the unreliability of information and the way rumour can also be spread in seconds around the world.” (Newman)

The Headlines are an Indicator

One way to check if a particular website is a conspiracy site would be to check the other headlines on the page. Conspiracy sites tend to have shocking headlines which involve: “UFO sightings. Hoaxed moon landings. Reptiles who rule the world.” (Oaklander) Other popular conspiracy theories include: President Obama is intentionally bankrupting the country, vaccines cause autism, President Obama has death squads to kill US citizens, rampage shootings and school shootings are hoaxes or perpetrated by the US government, (Listverse)

Headlines which appeared on activistpost.com in a single day, included stories with improbable headlines, such as Who is Jeb Bush, Really? – Part 1 – The Bush Crime Family, HERE’S THE NEWEST TOOL TO HELP YOU FIGHT THE SURVEILLANCE STATE, Declassified NASA Study Spreads Panic Amongst Americans, US Media Blackout: French Oppose Vaccines, Is The New World Order Dying? and US vs China: US Mobs Seek to Overthrow Malaysian Government.

Headlines appearing on Beforeitwasnews included: Confirmation Tianjin Was Nuked, Exclusive! 9/11 Methodical Deception: New Witnesses, Metadata & Mossad Links, US Banking Giant Citigroup Moves Massive Gold Reserves To Russia, Russian Media Warns That US Is Gearing Up For An Economic Apocalypse In September, Panic! Dollar Collapses…, All Major US Equity Indices Halted!!!, And Thanks to Congress the UN Plot to Confiscate American Guns Took a Giant Step Forward.

One can select any headline from a conspiracy site, then Google search it, and often, the results land on other conspiracy sites. For example, “US Banking Giant Citigroup Moves Massive Gold Reserves To Russia”: It would seem that something this important wouldn’t have been overlooked by the mainstream media. But the story is only running on conspiracy sites.

Where was a story cited?

Google searching the title of a story can also reveal where the story was cited. If the story has been cited as a source in academic papers or peer reviewed journals, or other relatively trustworthy media, the reliability would be higher. If the article was only cited in other conspiracy media, then the reliability would be lower.

Googling the phrase “CNN lied about chemical attack” the author of this report landed on several sites whose only evidence was the same RT report: RT English,. ‘Media ‘Staged’ Syria Chem Attack (E36)’. N.p., 2014. Web. 29 Aug. 2015.

Some of the sites which based their entire article on this single video included:

Tar, Pete. ‘RT Claims BBC Stages Syria Chemical Attack To Propagate War. [BBC Responds]’. Metabunk. N.p., 2015. Web. 29 Aug. 2015.

Educate Inspire Change,. ‘Fake News!! CNN & BBC Busted!! Proof Chemical Attacks Staged By Media – Educate Inspire Change’. N.p., 2014. Web. 29 Aug. 2015.

Mintpressnews.com,. ‘RT Claims Media Staged Syria Chemical Weapons Attack (Video)’. N.p., 2015. Web. 29 Aug. 2015.

On each of these sites, RT English,. ‘Media ‘Staged’ Syria Chem Attack (E36)’. N.p., 2014. Web. 29 Aug. 2015. is the only evidence. Just because something has been repeated many times doesn’t make it true. This story would have higher reliability if the sites which cited the story had other corroborating evidence to support the claims of fakery.

Language

In evaluating language, keep in mind; reporting should be fair and unbiased. The code of journalism ethics demands that journalists not distort facts, language or headlines to attract readers. (Czarny) If an article utilizes inflammatory language, this could be evidence of potential bias, which damages the reliability of the article. Before even reading the stories, one can see that several of the headlines referenced above utilize inflammatory language. “The Bush Crime Family” for example, paints the Bush family with the same brush as the Gambino Crime Family. A crime family, by definition, refers to an Italian-American crime syndicate. This definition does not match the Bush family, particularly since the Bush family have not been convicted of a crime. Other inflammatory headlines include: “Fake News…” and “Time admits…” “Fake” is too strong. If this report had actual poof that a major news media had misreported a story, then a less accusatory headline should be chosen. Also, the news media accused of the error should be given an opportunity to respond to the allegations. The phrase “Time admits” would suggest Time was accused of something and finally came clean. But nowhere in the story is there any reference to previous allegations for Time to “admit to.”

Be aware of headlines which play with the meanings of words in order to mislead the reader. For example, the story entitled, “5 Of 10 Top Economies In The World Drop The Dollar” is not about countries dropping the US Dollar as a medium or foreign exchange or store of wealth, but only that some countries have made agreements with China, whereby they would “bypass the Dollar” in trade with China.

Other analysis that can be done with language is simple definition checking. For example, “NYPD declares martial law.” According to Merriam Webster’s Dictionary, “Martial law is control of an area by military forces rather than by the police.” By definition, the police cannot declare martial law.

The headline “’Did You Know: US Gov’t Found Guilty In Conspiracy To Assassinate Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’.” The transcript of this civil trial, as well as the verdict, are available to the public. The defendant in the case was Loyd Jowers, not the US government. The US government was not the accused in the trial, neither was the US government the defendant. Consequently, by definition, the US government cannot be found guilty. (Coretta Scott King V. Loyd Jowers)

Responding to a request for comment on this story, Robert Previto, an attorney who has practiced law in New York for approximately 20 years, had this to say: “First, nobody is ever found ‘guilty’ in a ‘civil’ trial. ‘Guilt’ is a finding used only in criminal trials, which require that a unanimous verdict of twelve jurors determines that a defendant is guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. The standard of proof in a civil trial is whether or not a majority of the jurors (usually six) or a ‘trial of fact’ meaning a Judge or tribunal, finds the defendant ‘liable by a preponderance of the evidence,’ or, in some cases, by the higher standard of ‘clear and convincing evidence.’ Of course, no person or entity, including the U.S. Government, can be found either guilty or liable if they are not a named defendant in the trial.” Robert Previto, Attorney at Law

The title, ““US Corporate government goes bankrupt” is clearly a misuse of language, as the article refers to the US Federal government, which is not corporate. And, of course, the US government is not bankrupt. Bankruptcy implies a state of insolvency, but, other than one brief delay in paying some T-Bills in 1979, the US government has never defaulted on a bond obligation. (Marron)

Author

When evaluating the author one needs to ask if he or she is an expert in the field. What are his or her publishing credentials work experience, and education? (Guides.library.cornell.edu) For example, if during research on some aspect of health an article by CNN’s Chief Medical Correspondent, Dr. Sanjay Gupta, comes up, it can be assumed that Dr. Gupta, as one of the most high-profile medical practitioners in the world, is an expert in his field of medicine. On the other hand, an article about health, written by world-renown investor, Warren Buffett would carry less credibility because, although he is clearly a brilliant and accomplished man, Mr. Buffet’s expertise is in the field of securities and investments, not health.

It is also important to check the author’s affiliations. (Guides.library.cornell.edu) For example, if the article espouses the benefits of a particular company’s products or services, and the author is found to work for that company, then the article may have potential bias. On the other hand, if the author writes an article about the future plans or past behaviors of the World Monetary Fund, and it is found that the author is an employee of that organization, this may add credibility. This fact is equally likely to create potential for bias. Consequently, checking the author’s relationship to companies and organizations is important.

Publisher or Source

The source or the publisher of an article should also be evaluated. In the case of the story, RT English,. ‘Media ‘Staged’ Syria Chem Attack (E36)’. N.p., 2014. Web. 29 Aug. 2015 the source is Russian Television (RT), a state owned media. As RT is 100% owned by the Russian government, there may be potential bias in their reporting. Journalist Simon Shuster, in his article ‘Inside Putin’s Media Machine’, went so far as to refer to RT as Russia’s “main weapon in an intensifying information war with the West” (Shuster)

In an interview with the Washington Post, when asked about the Kremlin’s relationship to RT, Vladimir Putin said that the channel was funded by the government, “so it cannot help but reflect the Russian government’s official position” (Fisher, 2015)

Journalist Julia Ioffe, wrote in the 2008 Columbia Journalism Review that RT “Russia Today was conceived as a soft-power tool to improve Russia’s image abroad… Since its founding in 2005, however, the broadcast outlet has become better known as an extension of former President Vladimir Putin’s confrontational foreign policy.” (Ioffe)

According to a research paper from Harvard University, entitled “Who owns the media” zero percent of US media are owned by the government.” (DJANKOV et al.) CNN, for example, a leading US news media, which is often the target of conspiracy theories, does not qualify as state owned media. CNN is owned by the Turner Broadcasting System, a division of Time Warner, which is publicly traded.

Some countries are known to have very low degrees of press freedom which weaken the reliability of media. The organization, Reporters without Borders maintains the World Press Freedom Index, which ranks countries by degree of press freedom. Of the 180 countries rated, Russia ranks number 148. China ranks 175, or fifth from the bottom. According to a report from Harvard University, 100% of China’s media is state owned. The report claims that while in Russia, only 20% of media are state owned, the other 80% are so heavily censored as to limit their ability to report accurately. (DJANKOV et al.) Therefore, sources such as The China People’s Daily or Russian Television, both state owned media, would be considered sources of low reliability due to a combination of government ownership and censorship.

The difference between a country with high press freedom and one with low press freedom is illustrated in this Reuters story, accusing the US government of manipulating the human trafficking rankings of certain countries “Special Report: State Department watered down human trafficking report” (SZEP AND MATT SPETALNICK) Reuters is one of the mainstream media which conspiracy believers often cite as being a tool of the US government or only reporting in favor of US government agenda. But the truth is that Reuters also publishes reports which are critical of US government decisions. State owned media, on the other hand, tend not to criticize the state which owns them.

Evidence

If a story makes a claim, such as “Special Ops Officer Blows Whistle On CIA Funded ISIS” the article needs to support this claim with some type of evidence. Some common forms of evidence may include; interviews with experts, interviews with witnesses, interviews with parties involved, or references to other reports which have been verified. This particular article is based exclusively on an interview with a single person, Scott Bennett, who is identified as “a U.S. Army Special Operations Officer (11th Psychological Operations Battalion, Civil Affairs-Psychological Operations Command)”.

An article published in the International Journalists Network cautions journalists to thoroughly verify their stories. The article suggests that the source of a story needs to be investigated and that the journalist should find out what evidence the source has to support his or her claims. (Silverman) The same article goes on to say, “One of the easiest ways to avoid becoming part of a chain of dubious propagation is to take a few minutes and search/read closely to see where the claim or rumor originated.” (Silverman) This is the step that seems to be missing in many of these conspiracy stories.

When a source is quoted, the credibility of the source needs to be established. The article “Special Ops Officer Blows Whistle On CIA…” only identifies Scott Bennett as an officer, but never gives his rank. Normally, military sources are identified by rank. This omission of rank does not detract from the credibility of Scott Bennett, but does detract from the credibility of the article, as this is a glaring omission.

The Associated Press, in its News-Values states that when possible, the AP seeks to use more than one source. (Ap.org) The Reuters Handbook of Journalism suggests that journalists use two or more sources. (Handbook.reuters.com) In a News College article, Gregg McLachlan goes so far as to say that multiple sources are “essential.” (McLachlan)

Single sourced articles are of lesser reliability than those with multiple sources. This article, “Special Ops Officer Blows Whistle On CIA Funded ISIS” is single sourced. The article makes the claim that “President Obama is so willing to chase ISIS into Syria and risk war with Russia, but he allows an ISIS base camp to remain intact only 8 miles from El Paso”. (Hodges) To prove that there is an ISIS base in El Paso, the author should have interviewed people involved, such as ISIS members who live and work on the base. Assuming the ISIS members refused to give interviews, the author should have interviewed eyewitnesses, people living in the El Paso area, who were aware of or have had contact with the base. A large military base would employ cooks, cleaners, maintenance workers, drivers, delivery people, office staff, and all sorts of people who might be willing to give a statement.

The story didn’t even make the claim that the reporter went to the base but was refused entry or refused an interview. There seems to have been no attempt made to talk to anyone or verify the story.

With only the word of a single source, the story lacks credibility.

The RT story, RT English,. ‘Media ‘Staged’ Syria Chem Attack (E36)’. N.p., 2014. Web. 29 Aug. 2015. Makes this claim:
“4:46 Brilliant is how a top is Western official called tricking the public
4:49 through routine faking of atrocities and commonly aired on mainstream bulletins”

Although this is a video news story, which included other interviews and eyewitness reports, it did not include video footage of this “top Western official” making this statement. Neither did the story tell when, where, or in what context this “top Western official” made this statement. Additionally, the “top Western official” was never named. Therefore the quote cannot be verified. According to The Associated Press News-Values, sources should always be named except in the case of very specific mitigating circumstances. (Ap.org) The Reuters Handbook of Journalism also maintains that sources should be named, “Anonymous sources are the weakest sources.” (Handbook.reuters.com)Without attribution of speaker, time, and context of this quote, it is, at best, hearsay, not evidence.

The story headlined, “5 Of 10 Top Economies…” does not have a single interview or evidence of any kind. There are two quotes in the story, one which is an emotionally charged diatribe against the US Dollar “somewhat sustain our back-breaking debt that the banker-occupied United States government…”. The other quote is one which predicts what would happen if the world dropped the dollar. But neither of these quotes supports the story’s claim that “5 Of 10 Top Economies In The World Drop The Dollar”

The world’s 10 largest economies include: U.S., China, Japan, Germany, U.K., France, India, Brazil, Italy, and Canada. The story claims that several nations have agreed to bypass the dollar in bilateral trade with China, but, the list of countries in the story does not include 5 of these top economies.

Currency

Currency here simply means the timeliness of the story. If the article is too old, it may not be useful. The term “old” however, is relative. Some subjects change more rapidly than others. For example, an article about history, biography, or geography may be valid for a century or more. An article about the economy of China or Vietnam, however, or an article about the global use of social media may be out of date after a matter of months, because those subjects change very quickly.

Relationship with findings in other media

When evaluating the reliability of a story, it is important to see how that story relates to similar stories from other media sources. For example, in August, 2015, the Chinese Central Bank decided to devaluate China’s currency, the RMB. (Telegraph.co.uk)

This change in value of the official currency of the world’s second largest economy was so significant that mainstream media began running stories predicting the drop in July, as can be seen from this July 8th headline from CNBC, ‘China Turmoil Grows: 10% Renminbi Drop Predicted’. Major media, such as CNN, Reuters, MSN, BBC, Time, and the New York Times continued to follow the changes in the RMB’s value. Rather than just reposting the same source content, as has been seen with many conspiracy stories, the various media outlets ran their own stories with unique interviews, predictions and analysis on the RMB changes. A month later, toward the end of August, the mainstream media were still following the story, as evidenced in this CNBC story from 27 August, ‘China’s Yuan Up Sharply On C. Bank Intervention But Derivatives Stabilise’. (Jianxin and Sweeney)

Relationship with findings in other media means that a fact which was written in one source, such as CNN, could then be cross checked against another source, such as Money Magazine or Time. While predictions about future implications of the change in the RMB may vary somewhat, one would expect the basic facts of the story to remain the same from media to media.

Cross checking conspiracy theory stories is problematic, because conspiracy stories seem to appear only on other conspiracy websites. Although the conspiracy sites missed the RMB drop story, they had a number of stories which were not covered in mainstream media. A Listverse article selected the top 10 conspiracy theories of 2013. Among them were “Obama Death Squads” and “Newtown Shooting Hoax”. (Listverse) Interestingly, versions of both conspiracy theories appear on many of the same sites. For example, versions of both stories appeared on beforeitwasnews.com, prisonplanet.com, mrconservative, snopes.com, and dcclothesline.

Neither of these stories appeared on CNN, Reuters, MSN, BBC, Time, or the New York Times. If a story has no relation to other media, its reliability is lower.

According to a 2010 CNN article, 61% of Americans claim they get their news from the internet. (Gross) With millions of websites and thousands of news media to choose from, the choices of what to read and what to believe can be overwhelming. In order to select the most reliable media, one can evaluate the reliability of a news article by applying the simple tests of: Audience, language, author, evidence, currency, and relation to findings in other media

Brooklyn Monk, Antonio Graceffo teaches research methodology at Shanghai University. He is also a PhD candidate at Shanghai University of sport, writing his dissertation on comparative forms of Chinese wrestling. He is martial arts and adventure author living in Asia, the author of the books, “Warrior Odyssey’ and “The Monk from Brooklyn.” He is also the host of the web TV show, “Martial Arts Odyssey,” which traces his ongoing journey through Asia, learning martial arts in various countries.
The Monk from Brooklyn, the book which gave Antonio his name, and all of his other books, the book available at amazon.com. His book, Warrior Odyssey, chronicling Antonio Graceffo’s first six years in Asia, including stories about Khmer and Vietnamese martial arts as well as the war in Burma and the Shan State Army, is available at http://www.blackbeltmag.com/warrior_odyssey
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Uscinski, J. ‘Beliefs In Conspiracies Tend To Accord With Political Attitudes, Making It Unlikely That Any One Conspiracy Theory Will Be Embraced By The Country. | USAPP’. Blogs.lse.ac.uk. N.p., 2014. Web. 27 Aug. 2015.
WASHINGTON | BY JASON SZEP AND MATT SPETALNICK
http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/08/03/us-usa-humantrafficking-disputes-special-idUSKCN0Q821Y20150803

World bank article on state owned media
http://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/control-over-state-owned-media-equals-control-over-state

Yi-Luen Do, Ellen. ‘Afterword-Why Peer Review Journals’. international journal of architectural computing. Web. 28 Aug. 2015.

How Western Wrestlers Changed Judo

In Uncategorized on August 15, 2015 at 7:58 am

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By Antonio Graceffo

“Judo is a source of national pride in Japan, where the martial art originated.” (Cheng, 2012) But as larger, stronger foreigners, often with a wrestling background, entered the sport, the Japanese world-domination of Judo was challenged. Over the last fifty years judo has seen many rule changes which remove the advantage from western trained wrestlers.

The predecessor of modern Judo is .Japanese Jujitsu, which was founded in the mid 16th Century, but flourished from the 17th to the early 19th century. (Hays) From 1882 through 1887, the founder of modern Judo, Dr. Jigoro Kano analyzed various forms of jujitsu, absorbing some of the techniques, while rejecting others. “Getting rid of all dangerous, killing or maiming jujutsu waza, Kano forced opponents to grapple with one another. Thus, he restricted violence.” (Intjudo.eu) Dr. Kano eliminated many of the brutal joint-lock submission techniques and concentrated on the science of skillfully throwing an opponent on his back. The art he developed would become known as Kodokan Judo. (Worldjudoday.com)

Through Kano’s efforts, Judo became a school sport in the national physical education program in Japan. From its humble beginnings, the popularity of judo spread across Japan and to the rest of the world. The first All-Japan Championship was held in 1930. (Umjudo.com) In 1964, Judo became an official event in the Tokyo Olympics. (Worldjudoday.com)

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Everything went well for the Japanese and their world-domination of judo until 1961, when Dutch judoka, Anton Geesink won the world championships. (Umjudo.com) Standing 6 ft 6 in (1.98 m) tall and weighing 270 pounds (120 kilograms), by any measure of the word, Geesink was a giant. Dr. Kano originally envisioned judo as an art where size and strength wouldn’t matter. Geesink’s win challenged that notion.
Jigoro Kano was himself small and physically weak. (Judo-ch.jp) Therefore, he wanted to invent a martial art system where a small man could beat a big man. “He decided to learn more about the art which enabled the weak to overcome the strong.” (Intjudo.eu)

To prove the efficacy of his art, Kano and many of his students travelled to Europe and the US giving demonstrations and fighting in exhibitions against wrestlers. Mitsuyo Maeda, Count Coma, for example, travelled to Brazil, fighting all-comers. “And that he went around the world proving his art to be superior to every other, at that time.” (Gbarrasm.com) The Japanese judoka were often much smaller than their western opponents, but this was in keeping with Kano’s principal that a small man, trained in judo, could beat a big man, who wasn’t. For this reason, judo competitions were originally held without weight divisions. The All-Japan Championship “continues to this day as Kano envisioned it, without weight, age or rank restrictions, producing still the strongest Judo competitors in Japan.” (Umjudo.com)

Geesink’s win caused a tremendous ripple in Japan. “This was a big shock for Japanese Judo.” (Umjudo.com) And specifically because of Geesink, “the International Judo Federation quickly agreed to recognize weight divisions in future world championships.” (Umjudo.com)

Further weight class restrictions were instituted. “At the 1988 Seoul Olympic Games, the “open” division was dropped from the program.” (Umjudo.com) The open weight competition was arguably the embodiment of Jigoro Kano’s ideals that a small man could beat a big man, and that judo stressed technique over strength. “However, as historian Donn F. Draeger had pointed out as early as 1961, in circumstances where technical skills were extremely well-developed, and competitors likewise had substantial training and competition experience, strength and weight would play a role, in the Judo world.” (Umjudo.com)

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Geesink would not be the last westerner to influence rule changes in the sport of judo. After Geesink, next came the Russian wrestlers.

The first major judo competition between The Soviet Union and Japan occurred in 1963, in Kyoto, where Russia’s Boris Mishchenko defeated well-known Japanese judoka Isao Okano “as soon as the match begins, the Russian grabs the jacket of the Japanese, drops on his back and does a perfect arm bar juji-katame. Okano taps. The whole match lasts less than 20 seconds.” (Law, 2009, p. 94) The arm bar was unknown in Japanese judo prior to this match. (Law, 2009, p. 95)

The Russians became a powerful force in judo, even winning three gold medals in the London 2012 Olympics. (Kamalakaran)

Much of the Russians’ success in judo is closely tied to the development of Russian sambo, a grappling style developed for the Russian Special Forces in the early 1920s. One of sambo’s founders, Vasili Oshchepkov, was the first foreign black belt under judo founder, Dr. Jigoro Kano. As a result of Oshchepkov,’s judo experience, “Sambo has roots in Japanese Judo, international styles of wrestling, plus traditional folk styles of wrestling such as: Armenian Kokh, Georgian Chidaoba, Romanian Trîntǎ, Tatar Köräş, Uzbek Kurash, Mongolian Khapsagay and Azerbaijani Gulesh.” (Self.gutenberg.org)

Because of political difficulties between Russia and Japan, and as they were on opposing sides during WW II, the word “judo” was removed from the Russian sports lexicon and replaced with the term “sambo”. In 1938, sambo “was recognized as the national wrestling style in the Soviet Union.” (Lafon) When the Soviet Union found out that judo was slated for the 1964 Olympics, they began training their wrestlers to win gold medals. “The teaching they had did not focus on spiritual education but on sports results. They viewed judo as just another sport.” (Lafon)

In 1962, Soviet sambo champions, Anzor Kibrozashvili and Anzor Kiknadze, won the European Judo championships. In the 1964 Tokyo Olympics, the Soviets won four bronze medals. The Soviet, and later Russian, judo wins came from lessons learned through years of wrestling. “The experience of sambo or the expertise gained through years of national wrestling has made Soviet judo different and so powerful.” (Lafon) At the 1972 Munich Olympics, 22 year-old Shota Chochoshvili defeated two time world champion Fumio Sasahara, to take the gold medal. At the 1976, Montreal Olympics, Soviet judokas Vladimir Nevzorov and Sergei Novikov won the gold. “Soviet judo shook the judo world. It took some time for Japanese and Western traditionally-taught fighters to adapt to unorthodox techniques, strictly inspired from sambo.” (Lafon)

The Russian judo wins resulted in rule changes which eliminated many wrestling-based techniques. Single and double-leg takedowns, as well as fireman’s carry throws from wrestling were outlawed. “Concerned about wrestling-style moves infiltrating their sport, world judo officials outlawed wrestling-like tackles in 2009. Judoko that do any moves that involve grabbing the legs will immediately be disqualified.” (Hays)

Many observers felt these changes were as much to eliminate wrestling techniques as they were to hamper the Russian athletes. “The new judo rules include changes that emphasize the sport’s standing techniques and outlaw direct attacks on the opponent’s legs, often used in countries with a strong wrestling background like Russia, which won the most gold medals in London.” (Cheng, 2013)

The 2014 World Judo championships, held in Chelyabinsk, Russia, were conducted under the new rules, banning wrestling techniques. As a result, the Russians finished “without a single gold medal, but with three silver medals and six bronzes.” (Ellingworth) Many believe that these new rules prevented the Russians from winning. “One possible reason could be recent rule changes that have aimed to return judo to a more traditional Japanese style.”(Ellingworth)

Some international judoka maintain that the judo federation banned wrestling techniques in order for the Japanese to dominate the sport once again. Many purists, however, claim the changes were made to bring the art back to its origins and eliminate contamination from other sports, especially wrestling and sambo. (Hays) “The International Judo Federation says the rules were changed to make judo more dynamic, not to help Japan win more medals.” (Cheng, 2013)

Whatever the reason for judo’s changes, whether to preserve the art or to give an edge to the Japanese, wrestlers are now at a greater disadvantage in judo than ever before. ”You used to see people pick someone up midair, grab their legs and the next thing you know, someone’s on the ground,” (Cheng, 2013)

Finally, the rule changes are the legacy of the influence that westerners, particularly wrestlers have had on judo.

Cheng, Maria. ‘New Judo Rules Favor Japan At World Championships’. philstar.com. N.p., 2013. Web. 14 Aug. 2015.
Cheng, Maria. ‘Japan Looking For More Judo Golds At Olympics’. Thejakartapost.com. N.p., 2012. Web. 15 Aug. 2015.
Ellingworth, James. ‘Russian Wrestlers’ Prowess On The Mat Leaves Judo Playing Catch-Up Russian Wrestlers’ Prowess On The Mat Leaves Judo Playing Catch-Up | Russia Beyond The Headlines’. Asia.rbth.com. N.p., 2014. Web. 14 Aug. 2015.
Gbarrasm.com,. ‘Gracie Barra Santa Monica | Brazilian Jiu Jitsu | BJJ | Martial Arts | Mixed Martial Arts | MMA | Santa Monica | Gbarrasm.Com’. Web. 14 Aug. 2015.
Hays, Jeffrey. ‘JUDO: THE OLYMPICS, RULE CHANGES, JIGORO KANO, RYOKO TANI AND THE JEWISH GRANDMOTHER | Facts And Details’. Factsanddetails.com. N.p., 2009. Web. 13 Aug. 2015.
Intjudo.eu,. ‘International Judo Federation’. N.p., 2015. Web. 14 Aug. 2015.
Judo-ch.jp,. ‘The Life Of Jigoro Kano: Jigoro Kano, Father Of Body And Mind Education | Judo Channel | Token Corporation: Official Partner Of The All Japan Judo Federation (Zenjuren)’. N.p., 2015.
Judosolutions.co.uk, (2014). Judo as a Fighting Art. [online] Available at: http://judosolutions.co.uk/judo-as-a-fighting-art/

Kamalakaran, Ajay. ‘Three Olympic Gold Medals In Judo Put Russia On The Map At London 2012’. Telegraph.co.uk. N.p., 2012. Web. 15 Aug. 2015.
Lafon, Gerald. ‘If You Can’T Beat Them, Change The Darn Rules! | Betterjudo.Com’. Betterjudo.com. N.p., 2010. Web. 13 Aug. 2015.
Law, M. (2009). Falling hard. Boston: Trumpeter.
Self.gutenberg.org,. ‘Sambo (Martial Art) | Project Gutenberg Self-Publishing – Ebooks | Read Ebooks Online’. N.p., 2015. Web. 14 Aug. 2015.
Umjudo.com,. ‘Globalization Of Judo’. Web. 13 Aug. 2015.
Worldjudoday.com,. ‘The History Of Judo’. N.p., 2015. Web. 14 Aug. 2015.

Booklyn Monk: Catch Wrestling with Yunaquan (Part 1)

In Uncategorized on August 10, 2015 at 2:28 am

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At the Singapore catch Wrestling association, Brooklyn Monk, Antonio Graceffo meets up with Qin Yunquan a leading female catch wrestler and MMA fighter. Catch wrestling is a submission wrestling sport which combines the takedowns and pins of wrestling with submissions, which catch wrestlers call “hooks” or “torture holds.” Catch was born in the mid to late 19th Century in England, but quickly migrated to the US, where it eventually gave rise to professional wrestling and Ameircan freestyle and folkstyle wrestling. MMA fighter, Josh Barnet is one of the most famous catch wrestlers fighting today, but most of the big names of early MMA can trace their lineage to Karl Gotch, a European/American catch wrestler who taught catch to pro wrestlers in Japan in the 1990’s. Among his most famous students were Ken Shamrock and Kazushi Sakuraba.

Watch on Youtube: Catch Wrestling with Yunaquan (Part 1)

Watch it on Youtube: Catch Wrestling with Yunaquan (Part 2 )

Watch it on Youtube: Catch Wrestling with Yunaquan (Part 3 )

Brooklyn Monk, Antonio Graceffo is a martial arts and adventure author living in Asia. He is the author of the books, “Warrior Odyssey’ and “The Monk from Brooklyn.” He is also the host of the web TV show, “Martial Arts Odyssey,” which traces his ongoing journey through Asia, learning martial arts in various countries.
Warrior Odyssey, the book chronicling Antonio Graceffo’s first six years in Asia is available at amazon.com. The book contains stories about the war in Burma and the Shan State Army. The book is available at http://www.blackbeltmag.com/warrior_odyssey
See Antonio’s Destinations video series and find out about his column on http://www.blackbeltmag.com
Email Antonio
Antonio@speakingadventure.com
website
http://www.speakingadventure.com
Twitter
http://twitter.com/Brooklynmonk
facebook
Brooklyn Monk fan page
Brooklyn Monk on YOUTUBE
http://www.youtube.com/user/brooklynmonk1
Brooklyn Monk in Asia Podcast (anti-travel humor)
http://brooklynmonk.podomatic.com

Catch Wrestling in other Media

In Uncategorized on August 6, 2015 at 7:46 am

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As part of the research for his PhD dissertation on comparative wrestling styles, Brooklyn Monk Antonio Graceffo travels to the Singapore Catch Wrestling Association, to explore the art of catch wrestling. Meet female catch wrestler, Qin Yunquan a leading wrestler and MMA fighter in Singapore. Hear the Monk discuss a chapter of the English version of his dissertation, entitled Wrestling in other media. Catch wrestling has appeared in lots of American TV shows from The Little Rascals, The Munsters, The Flintstones, to Spiderman, and on.

Watch on Youtube: Catch Wrestling in other Media

Brooklyn Monk, Antonio Graceffo is a martial arts and adventure author living in Asia. He is the author of the books, “Warrior Odyssey’ and “The Monk from Brooklyn.” He is also the host of the web TV show, “Martial Arts Odyssey,” which traces his ongoing journey through Asia, learning martial arts in various countries.
Warrior Odyssey, the book chronicling Antonio Graceffo’s first six years in Asia is available at amazon.com. The book contains stories about the war in Burma and the Shan State Army. The book is available at http://www.blackbeltmag.com/warrior_odyssey
See Antonio’s Destinations video series and find out about his column on http://www.blackbeltmag.com
Email Antonio
Antonio@speakingadventure.com
website
http://www.speakingadventure.com
Twitter
http://twitter.com/Brooklynmonk
facebook
Brooklyn Monk fan page
Brooklyn Monk on YOUTUBE
http://www.youtube.com/user/brooklynmonk1
Brooklyn Monk in Asia Podcast (anti-travel humor)
http://brooklynmonk.podomatic.com