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The Oklahoma City Bombing, was it terrorism?

In Uncategorized on November 27, 2015 at 1:03 pm

By Antonio Graceffo

Shanghai Jiaotong University, China MBA

PhD Candidate, Shanghai University of Sport

Contact: Antonio_graceffo@hotmail.com

Prepared for the course, Terrorism and Counter Terrorism, University of Leiden

 

Table Contents

1. Introduction
2. The Attack
3. The Verdict
4. Use of the terms ‘terrorist’ and ‘terrorism’
5. Analysis using Academic Consensus Definition of terrorism
6. Conclusion
7. Bibliography
8. About the author

 

 

 

  1. Introduction

 

Terrorism is an emotionally charged issue which has been prominent in both the media and political rhetoric since the 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City. One of the issues with any discussion of terrorism is that there is no universally accepted definition of the term. The lack of a specific definition impedes international cooperation on anti-terrorism. It also negatively impacts terrorism research, analysis, convictions, and prevention.

 

Terrorism expert, Alex Schmid, Director of St Andrews Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence (CSTPV) and former Officer-in-Charge of the Terrorism Prevention Branch of the United Nations, has proposed a twelve-point Academic Consensus Definition of terrorism.

 

This paper seeks to give a brief recount of the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing, including the judge’s verdict. It will then assess whether the terms ‘terrorist’ and ‘terrorism’ were used with regard to the perpetrator and the incident. Finally, this report will apply the elements of Alex Schmid’s Academic Consensus Definition of terrorism, to determine if the attack qualifies as an act of terrorism.

 

 

  1. The Attack

 

On April 19, 1995, Timothy McVeigh, a Gulf War veteran parked a rented truck loaded with improvised explosives, made from fertilizer in front of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City. He detonated the fuse, and several minutes later 168 people were dead, 19 of them children. Hundreds more were wounded. It was the worst act of domestic terrorism in the history of the United States. Less than 90 minutes later, in an unrelated event, police stopped McVeigh for a traffic violation, when it was discovered that he was illegally carrying a weapon. He was arrested, and while he was in jail, the FBI determined that he was the primary suspect in the bombing (FBI n.a.).

 

  1. The verdict

 

Already in custody for traffic and weapons charges, Timothy McVeigh was later recognized as the suspect in the Oklahoma City bombing. He was charged with conspiracy and for the deaths of eight federal agents (Cnn.com 1997). In 1997, the jury turned in a verdict of guilty, on 11 counts of conspiracy and murder (Thomas 1997). The jurors unanimously recommended that the judge impose the death penalty (Cnn.com 1997). Timothy McVeigh was executed by lethal injection, on June 11, 2001, in federal penitentiary in Terre Haute, Indiana (Fox News 2001).

 

  1. Use of the terms ‘terrorist’ and ‘terrorism’

 

A 1997 CNN report used the word “terrorism” calling the attack “the worst case of terrorism in U.S. history” (Cnn.com 1997). The Washington Post used the word “terror”, describing the attack as shattering “a complacent nation’s belief that the face of random political terror could never be American” (Kenworthy and Roman 1997). The same story went on to explain that “McVeigh was tried under a 1994 federal anti-terrorism statute that has yet to be tested at the Supreme Court. McVeigh’s was the first case under that statute to proceed to sentencing” (Kenworthy and Roman 1997). NBC also used the words “terrorist” and “terrorism” in an article about the 20 year anniversary of the attack: “which until Sept. 11, 2001, was the worst terrorist attack on U.S. soil and is the worst act of domestic terrorism in American history” (Chuck 2015).

 

  1. Analysis using Academic Consensus Definition of terrorism

 

That the attack was clearly an act of terrorism can be proved by applying the Academic Consensus Definition of terrorism by Alex Schmid (2012).

 

  1. Terrorism refers, on the one hand, to a doctrine about the presumed effectiveness of a special form or tactic of fear-generating, coercive political violence and, on the other hand, to a conspiratorial practice of calculated, demonstrative, direct violent action without legal or moral restraints, targeting mainly civilians and non-combatants, performed for its propagandistic and psychological effects on various audiences and conflict parties; (Schmid 2012)

 

Rule 1 applies because of the attack was one of violence and conspiracy which was carried out without “legal or moral restraints, targeting mainly civilian non-combatants.” The term “fear-generating” also applies as McVeigh’s target was the US government, not the individuals he attacked. McVeigh referred to the children he killed as “’collateral damage,’ regretting only that their deaths detracted from his bid to avenge the Branch Davidian raid and Ruby Ridge” (latimes 2001) Attacking civilians with the intent of hurting a government would be a clear example of both “fear-generating” and “propagandistic and psychological effects.”

 

  1. “Terrorism as a tactic is employed in three main contexts: (i) illegal state repression, (ii) propagandistic agitation by non-state actors in times of peace or outside zones of conflict and (iii) as an illicit tactic of irregular warfare employed by state- and non-state actors;” (Schmid 2012)

 

The Oklahoma City bombing matches rule 2.ii, McVeigh was a non-state actor, in time of peace, perpetrating propagandistic agitation. Both CNN and the FBI stated that McVeigh was angry because of the 1993 siege near Waco, Texas, where roughly 80 members of the Branch Davidian cult were killed in a gun battle with the FBI. (Cnn.com 1997 and FBI N.A.) McVeigh told ABC News that he was also angry about a 1992 shootout at Ruby Ridge, Idaho, where the family of separatists were killed during a shootout with federal agents (ABCNews n.a.).

 

  1. At the origin of terrorism stands terror – instilled fear, dread, panic or mere anxiety – spread among those identifying, or sharing similarities, with the direct victims, generated by some of the modalities of the terrorist act – its shocking  brutality,  lack of discrimination,  dramatic or symbolic quality and disregard of the rules of warfare and the rules of punishment;

 

Killing innocent civilians, and particularly children, matches rule number 5.

 

Finally, the fact that McVeigh attacked innocent civilians, as a result of his anger against the US government matches the definitions of rules 6 and 7.

 

  1. “The main direct victims of terrorist attacks are in general not any armed forces but are usually civilians, non-combatants or other innocent and defenceless persons who bear no direct responsibility for the conflict that gave rise to acts of terrorism;” (Schmid 2012)

 

  1. “The direct victims are not the ultimate target (as in a classical assassination where victim and target coincide) but serve as message generators, more or less unwittingly helped by the news values of the mass media, to reach various audiences and conflict parties that identify either with the victims’ plight or the terrorists’ professed cause;” (Schmid 2012)

 

  1. Conclusion

 

For his 1995 bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City,   Timothy McVeigh was convicted of murder and conspiracy under an antiterrorism law and sentenced to death. The media, both then and now, referred to the act as terrorism. The bombing constitutes an act of terrorism, according to Academic Consensus Definition of terrorism by Alex Schmid (2012). The attack, perpetrated by a non state actor, during time of peace, carried out against innocent civilians, motivated by an anti-government ideology matches rules 1, 2.ii, 5, 6, and 7.

 

  1. References

 

ABCNews. ‘Primetime: Mcveigh’s Own Words’. ABC News. N.p., n.a. Web. 26 Nov. 2015.
Chuck, Elizabeth. ‘Where Are They Now? The People In The Oklahoma City Bombing’. NBC News. N.p., 2015. Web. 25 Nov. 2015.
Cnn.com,. ‘CNN – Mcveigh Sentenced To Die For Oklahoma City Bombing – June 13, 1997’. N.p., 1997. Web. 25 Nov. 2015.
FBI,. ‘Oklahoma City Bombing’. Web. 25 Nov. 2015.
Fox News,. ‘Timothy Mcveigh Put To Death For Oklahoma City Bombings | Fox News’. N.p., 2001. Web. 27 Nov. 2015.
Kenworthy, Tom, and Lois Roman. ‘Washingtonpost.Com: Oklahoma City Bombing Trial Report’. Washingtonpost.com. N.p., 1997. Web. 25 Nov. 2015.
latimes,. ‘Mcveigh Labels Young Victims ‘Collateral Damage”. N.p., 2001. Web. 27 Nov. 2015.
Schmid, Alex. ‘The Revised Academic Consensus Definition Of Terrorism’. Perspectives on Terrorism 6.2 (2012): n. pag. Web. 25 Nov. 2015.
Thomas, Jo. ‘Mcveigh GUILTY ON ALL COUNTS IN THE OKLAHOMA CITY BOMBING; JURY TO WEIGH DEATH PENALTY’. Nytimes.com. N.p., 1997. Web. 27 Nov. 2015.

 

  1. About the author

 

Brooklyn Monk, Antonio Graceffo is a lecturer at Shanghai University. He is also a PhD candidate at Shanghai University of sport, writing his dissertation on comparative forms of Chinese wrestling, in Chinese, with expected graduation in June of 2016. He is expected to graduate his China MBA, from Shanghai Jiaotong University, in January, 2016. Antonio is the author of the books, “Warrior Odyssey”, “The Monk from Brooklyn,” and several others. He has published hundreds of articles in the fields of linguistics: second language acquisition, as well as martial arts. Antonio is the host of the web TV show, “Martial Arts Odyssey,” which traces his ongoing journey through Asia, learning martial arts in various countries.

The Monk from Brooklyn, the book which gave Antonio his name, and all of his other books, the book available at amazon.com. His book, Warrior Odyssey,  chronicling Antonio Graceffo’s first six years in Asia, including stories about Khmer and Vietnamese martial arts as well as the war in Burma and the Shan State Army,  is available at http://www.blackbeltmag.com/warrior_odyssey

See Antonio’s Destinations video series and find out about his column on  http://www.blackbeltmag.com

Twitter: Brooklynmonk

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Facebook: Brooklyn Monk fan page

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Brooklyn Monk on YOUTUBE

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Brooklyn Monk in Asia Blog

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Books by Antonio Graceffo

http://www.amazon.com/Antonio-Graceffo/e/B001JP12L6/ref=sr_tc_2_0?qid=1447842711&sr=1-2-ent

Brooklyn Monk in Asia Podcast (anti-travel humor)

http://brooklynmonk.podomatic.com

 

 

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Martial Arts Odyssey: Muay Boran 1

In Uncategorized on November 21, 2015 at 7:46 am

Before there was sport Muay Thai there was ancient Muay Thai, Muay Boran. Modern sport Muay Thai contains about 20 movements. Muay Boran contains hundreds. In the 1920’s when Muay Thai was codified as a modern sport His Majesty the King called the great masters together to write a book of modern Muay Thai. All of the techniques in that book have been recorded for history. All of the techniques excluded from the book are considered Muay Boran. Unfortunately, Muay Boran has never been codified. So, different masters know different techniques. Fighting Muay Thai is a way of earning a living in Thailand, but there are no Muay Boran fights. Consequently, young people abandoned the study of the art. Most masters haven’t passed on their skills to a younger generation. And now, most of the masters are old, dead, or dying. As a result, Muay boran is an endangered art. The master featured in this video is Adjan Sok Chai from Surin, Thailand, the first teacher of film star Tony Jaa. He can be seen in many of Tony Jaa’s movies, wearing almost the same clothes he wears in the video, the clothes he wears every day.
Martial Arts Odyssey: Muay Boran 1

Martial Arts Odyssey Re-Release (Part 1)

In Uncategorized on November 15, 2015 at 4:22 pm

Back to the beginning, rereleasing all of the videos
By Antonio Graceffo

Martial Arts Odyssey, the video series which follows the Brooklyn Monk, Antonio Graceffo on his journey through martial arts across Asia has been running since 2007. The video series grew out of a series of magazine articles and books which began in 2001, when Antonio left New York to go to Taiwan, learn Kung Fu and Mandarin and then train at the Shaolin Temple in Mainland China.

Since the beginning there have been about 400 martial arts videos, featuring the Monk studying diverse martial arts, such as Kuntaw in the Philippines, Muay Chaiya in Thailand, Selambam in Penang, Vo Co Truen in Vietnam, Bokator in Cambodia, shuai jiao in China and many, many more.

In order to share all of these wonderful martial arts with a new generation of fans, Antonio is rereleasing the episodes, in the order in which they were originally released, at a rate of one per day.

MAO: Kuntaw in the Philippines was the first episode shot and the first episode released, in 2007. At that time, Antonio didn’t even own a video camera, so the video was shot and edited by a TV crew in the Philippines. This video features Grand Master Frank Aycocho.

Digging for the Truth: Angkor Wat, from the Philippines, Antonio flew to Siem Reap Cambodia, where he and his Bokator instructor Grand Master San Kim Saen collaborated with a New York based film crew to shoot this documentary about the traditional Cambodian martial art, Bokator.

Between 2007 and 2008 numerous episodes were shot with borrowed equipment, but Antonio lacked expertise and money for editing, so the tapes collected in a backpack until late 2008 when they were finally edited and released, but not in the order in which they were shot. The third episode to air was MAO: Training with the Shan State Army 1, which was shot in 2007.

This video was shot in Burma during the saffron revolution when foreigners were banned from entering Burma. It is thought to be the first video ever to feature the kung fu of the Shan ethnic group, called Lai Tai. MAO Laitai 1

Pra Kru Bah, the muay Thai monk is the abbot of the Golden Horse Monastary, Wat Achatong on the Thai Burma border. In 2003 he took Antonio in and became Antonio’s first Muay Thai teacher. He taught Antonio Muay Thai, Thai language, and Thai culture. It was in this monastery that Antonio first heard about the war in Burma and vowed to someday help the Shan people. Prah Kru Bah Story Part 1

Brooklyn Monk, Antonio Graceffo is a lecturer at Shanghai University. He is also a PhD candidate at Shanghai University of sport, writing his dissertation on comparative forms of Chinese wrestling, in Chinese, with expected graduation in June of 2016. He is expected to graduate his China MBA, from Shanghai Jiaotong University, in January, 2016. Antonio is the author of the books, “Warrior Odyssey”, “The Monk from Brooklyn,” and several others. He has published hundreds of articles in the fields of linguistics: second language acquisition, as well as martial arts. Antonio is the host of the web TV show, “Martial Arts Odyssey,” which traces his ongoing journey through Asia, learning martial arts in various countries.
The Monk from Brooklyn, the book which gave Antonio his name, and all of his other books, the book available at amazon.com. His book, Warrior Odyssey, chronicling Antonio Graceffo’s first six years in Asia, including stories about Khmer and Vietnamese martial arts as well as the war in Burma and the Shan State Army, is available at http://www.blackbeltmag.com/warrior_odyssey
See Antonio’s Destinations video series and find out about his column on http://www.blackbeltmag.com
Twitter
http://twitter.com/Brooklynmonk
facebook
Brooklyn Monk fan page
https://www.facebook.com/pages/Brooklyn-Monk/152520701445654?fref=ts
Brooklyn Monk on YOUTUBE
http://www.youtube.com/user/brooklynmonk1
Brooklyn Monk in Asia Podcast (anti-travel humor)
http://brooklynmonk.podomatic.com

War Crimes, Genocide, and Terrorism, Defining Terror

In Uncategorized on November 15, 2015 at 3:54 pm

By Antonio Graceffo

In the aftermath of the November, 2015 terrorist attacks on Paris, the internet was ablaze with arguments and opinions, many of which were understandably emotionally charged. Many of the posts and arguments were using the words war crimes, genocide, and terrorism. Most people would agree that murder, whether defined as war Crimes, Genocide, and Terrorism, is a terrible thing. These words are not interchangeable, however, and to bring suit before the International Criminal Court or to bring a case to a world body, such as the United Nations, the specific crime would have to be named, defined, and proved. An atrocity can be committed which is seen as a pure act of evil and yet would not qualify as genocide, but a conviction might have been possible if the charge were war crimes or terrorism.

The purpose of this paper is to give an explanation for and some examples of the three terms; war crimes, genocide, and Terrorism.

War Crimes

Several definitions of war crimes can be found. According to The International Criminal Court: “War crimes” include grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions and other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in international armed conflict and in conflicts “not of an international character” listed in the Rome Statute, when they are committed as part of a plan or policy or on a large scale” (Icc-cpi.int 2015).

“Genocide, crimes against humanity, mistreatment of civilians or combatants during war can all fall under the category of war crimes. Genocide is the most severe of these crimes” (Kafala 2009). War crimes include: Murder, Extermination, Enslavement, Deportation, Imprisonment, Torture, Rape, Persecutions on political, racial and religious grounds (Kafala 2009). “War crimes may be committed by a country’s regular armed forces, such as its army, navy, or air force, or by irregular armed forces, such as guerrillas and insurgents.” (TheFreeDictionary.com).

The Legal Information Institute of Cornell University cites 18 U.S. Code § 2441 – War crimes, “which constitutes a grave breach of common Article 3…committed in the context of and in association with an armed conflict not of an international character…contrary to the provisions of the Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices as amended at Geneva on 3 May 1996 (Protocol II as amended on 3 May 1996), when the United States is a party to such Protocol, willfully kills or causes serious injury to civilians” (LII / Legal Information Institute 2015).

“serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in international armed conflict” (ICC cited in Icrc.org 2015). “…subjecting a protected person to medical experiments” (Icrc.org 2015).

“The conduct breaches important values.. example, abusing dead bodies;[8] subjecting persons to humiliating treatment;[9] making persons undertake work that directly helps the military operations of the enemy;[10] violation of the right to fair trial;[11] and recruiting children under 15 years of age into the armed forces.” (Icrc.org 2015).

While the exact wording may differ, the commonalities between the various definitions of war crimes is that they must be committed during a war, generally by uniformed military personnel. War crimes are often assessed when civilians are specifically attacked or targeted by an army at war. Genocide is included in war crimes, and is considered the most extreme war crime. Genocide will be further defined in the next section.

Examples of war crimes would be the Nazis in World War II intentionally targeting Jewish civilians (Kafala 2009).

Genocide

Genocide is considered one of the most severe crimes against humanity. It means “the deliberate attempt to destroy a national, ethnic, racial or religious group.” (Bbc.co.uk 2015).
According to the International Criminal Court (2015) Genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, as such: “killing members of the group, causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group, deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part, imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group, forcibly transferring children of the group to another group…Individuals are chosen as victims purely, simply and exclusively because they are members of the target group, and not because of anything an individual has done.”
Twentieth Century examples of genocide: Ottoman Turks slaughter of 1.5 million Armenians 1915-1923, Hitler’s holocaust against the Jews, Roma, and others 1930s and 40s, 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus killed in Rwanda 1994, and Former Yugoslavia 1992-1995. (Icc-cpi.int 2015b)

Terrorism

Experts will agree that there is no unified definition of terrorism (Schaack 2009). Schaack (2009) describes terrorism as ‘The perpetration of violence by enumerated or unenumerated means; The targeting of innocent civilians or elements of the civilian infrastructure; Conduct is undertaken: With the intent to cause violence or with wanton disregard for the act’s consequences; For the purpose of causing fear or terror, coercing a government, or intimidating an enemy; or To achieve some political, military, ideological, or religious goal” (Schaack 2009).

Cohen (2012) defines terrorism as: “acts offenses involving use of firearms, weapons, explosives, and dangerous substances when used as a means to perpetrate indiscriminate violence involving death or serious bodily injury to persons or groups of persons or populations or serious damage to property” (Cohen 2012).

According to International Crimes Database (n.d.) “In its Resolution 1566 (2004), the Security Council drew on the international conventions and protocols relating to terrorism, and on this basis, referred to terrorism as: criminal acts, including against civilians, committed with the intent to cause death or serious bodily injury, or taking of hostages, with the purpose to provoke a state of terror in the general public or in a group of persons or particular persons, intimidate a population or compel a government or an international organization to do or to abstain from doing any act.” (Internationalcrimesdatabase.org n.d.)

“In order to intimidate a population or compel a government or an international organization to do or to abstain from doing any act.” (Internationalcrimesdatabase.org n.d.)

“Perhaps the most debated definition of terrorism, as an international crime, has been brought forward in the landmark decision of the Appeals Chamber of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon (STL). In paragraph 85 of that decision, the Appeals Chamber considers that: the international crime of terrorism … requires the following three key elements: (i) the perpetration of a criminal act (such as murder, kidnapping, hostage-taking, arson, and so on), or threatening such an act; (ii) the intent to spread fear among the population (which would generally entail the creation of public danger) or directly or indirectly coerce a national or international authority to take some action, or to refrain from taking it; (iii) when the act involves a transnational element.” (Internationalcrimesdatabase.org n.d.)

Examples of terrorism

The September, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City which killed 2993, the 2001 “shoe bomber” who attempted to blow up an American Airlines flight (Internationalcrimesdatabase.org n.d.) the 2009 Boko Haram attack in Maiduguri, Borno, Nigeria which killed 780, the 2004 attaack in Beslan, North Ossetia, Russia resulting in 372 killed (Johnstonsarchive.net 2015) The 2015 Paris attack on the offices of Charlie Hebdo magazine, which killed twelve (WSJ 2015), The November 2015 terrorist attacks in Paris which left more than 128 people dead (Almasy, Meilhan and Bittermann 2015).

Taking the Paris bombings or the 9/11 terrorist attacks in New York City, one can apply the definition of terrorism. Both attack were violent in nature, directly targeted at civilians or civilian infrastructure, and were undertaken for the intent of spreading fear among the population and to indirectly coerce a national or international authority to take some action, or to refrain from taking it.

Conclusion

Horrible things can and do happen in this world, but that doesn’t make them a war crime, neither does it make them genocide, or terrorism. A million people could be killed in a single day, and yet it may not qualify as a war crime if the persons killed were combatants in a declared war, killed in a way that does not violate the rules of war. A million civilians could be killed in a single day, and yet it couldn’t be called genocide unless the intent was to exterminate an entire race from the planet. A million civilians could be killed in a single day, but the crime wouldn’t necessarily qualify as terrorism if the perpetrators were uniformed soldiers, acting on direct orders from the country’s government, within its own borders. This is not to detract from the tragedy of a million people being killed in a single day, it just means that in order to bring suit, or to bring the case before a world body, the crime needs to be identified correctly.

Bibliography
Almasy, Steve, Pierre Meilhan, and Jim Bittermann. ‘Paris Massacre: At Least 128 Die In Attacks – CNN.Com’. CNN. N.p., 2015. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.
Bbc.co.uk,. ‘BBC – Ethics – War: War Crimes’. N.p., 2015. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.
Cohen, Aviv. ‘PROSECUTING TERRORISTS AT THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT: REEVALUATING AN UNUSED LEGAL TOOL TO COMBAT TERRORISM’. Michigan State International Law Review Vol. 20:2 (2012): 223. Print.
Icc-cpi.int,. ‘ICC – What Are War Crimes?’. N.p., 2015. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.
Icc-cpi.int,. ‘ICC – What Is Genocide?’. N.p., 2015. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.
Icrc.org,. ‘Customary IHL – Rule 156. Definition Of War Crimes’. N.p., 2015. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.
Internationalcrimesdatabase.org,. ‘ICD – Terrorism – Asser Institute’. N.p., 2015. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.
Johnstonsarchive.net,. ‘Worst Terrorist Strikes–Worldwide’. N.p., 2015. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.
Kafala, Tarik. ‘BBC NEWS | Europe | What Is A War Crime?’. News.bbc.co.uk. N.p., 2009. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.
LII / Legal Information Institute,. ’18 U.S. Code § 2441 – War Crimes’. N.p., 1949. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.
Schaack, Beth. ‘Intlawgrrls: Toward A Definition Of Terrorism’. Intlawgrrls.com. N.p., 2009. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.
TheFreeDictionary.com,. ‘War Crimes’. N.p., 2015. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.
Copy and paste bibliography citation Copy and paste in-text citation
WSJ,. ‘Timeline Of Terror Attacks In Past 20 Years’. N.p., 2015. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.

Brooklyn Monk, Antonio Graceffo is a lecturer at Shanghai University. He is also a PhD candidate at Shanghai University of sport, writing his dissertation on comparative forms of Chinese wrestling, in Chinese, with expected graduation in June of 2016. He is expected to graduate his China MBA, from Shanghai Jiaotong University, in January, 2016. Antonio is the author of the books, “Warrior Odyssey”, “The Monk from Brooklyn,” and several others. He has published hundreds of articles in the fields of linguistics: second language acquisition, as well as martial arts. Antonio is the host of the web TV show, “Martial Arts Odyssey,” which traces his ongoing journey through Asia, learning martial arts in various countries.
The Monk from Brooklyn, the book which gave Antonio his name, and all of his other books, the book available at amazon.com. His book, Warrior Odyssey, chronicling Antonio Graceffo’s first six years in Asia, including stories about Khmer and Vietnamese martial arts as well as the war in Burma and the Shan State Army, is available at http://www.blackbeltmag.com/warrior_odyssey
See Antonio’s Destinations video series and find out about his column on http://www.blackbeltmag.com
Twitter
http://twitter.com/Brooklynmonk
facebook
Brooklyn Monk fan page
https://www.facebook.com/pages/Brooklyn-Monk/152520701445654?fref=ts
Brooklyn Monk on YOUTUBE
http://www.youtube.com/user/brooklynmonk1
Brooklyn Monk in Asia Podcast (anti-travel humor)
http://brooklynmonk.podomatic.com